The 世界杯压球APP produces the 花粉预报 for the whole of the UK in conjunction with the Met Office. 为什么世界杯压球APP会患上可怕的花粉热? 贝弗莉博士Adams-Groom, Chief Palynologist (pollen specialist) 而且 花粉预报er at the 科学与环境学院 explains why we get hay fever 而且 what we can do to monitor pollen.

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Sneezy, Sleepy, Grumpy 而且 Dopey – this is how you feel when you’ve got an attack of hay fever. Happy - when you haven’t got hay fever 而且, if you have it bad, you may need to see the Doc.

花粉症可不是闹着玩的, 虽然, being thoroughly debilitating 而且 causing reduced quality of life, 带着疼痛四处走动, red eyes is likely to make you Bashful. Approximately one fifth of the UK population are affected by hay fever, with more than three million affected by allergen-triggered asthma. The main culprits are pollen 而且 fungal spores but the typical symptoms of sneezing, 流鼻涕, itchy eyes 而且 throat can be caused by many other triggers too, 如房屋灰尘螨粪便, 宠物毛皮和皮屑, 香烟烟雾, 香薰蜡烛, 香水, 打印机墨水和蟑螂. 

Pollen allergens are actually proteins embedded within the grains. When they hit onto the mast cells inside the nose, they trigger the release of histamine in sensitised individuals. Histamine is there to ward off invaders 而且 its release causes itching, 肿胀, sneezing 而且 mucous production – all those annoying symptoms which combine to make you feel like most of the seven dwarves rolled into one!

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Only a few pollen types typically trigger hay fever because to get up a sufferer’s nose the pollen must be produced in high quantities 而且 be able to get airborne easily. Grass pollen is the most common hay fever trigger in the UK, affecting around 95% of hay fever sufferers. 其次是桦树花粉, 影响大约25%的患者, 其次是橡木, 桤木, Hazel 而且 a few others (no wonder Sneezy was snuffling – he lived in a forest surrounded by them!),这些, 非常广泛的, plants are pollinated by the wind 而且 have small, light pollen that can easily become airborne. The flowers are indistinct on these plants – usually arranged on catkins dangling down, sometimes referred to as ‘lamb’s tails’.

Most flowers are pollinated by insects 而且 have pollen that is textured 而且 often sticky so that it can easily cling to the insects’ bodies 而且 be distributed from flower to flower. Insect-pollinated pollen is usually heavy, produced in much lower quantities than wind-pollinated types 而且 rarely becomes airborne. Many people suspect that oil-seed rape pollen causes their hay fever because they notice huge fields of bright yellow flowers. In fact it is usually birch or oak pollen that is causing their symptoms, which occur at the same time but are not all obvious.

花粉粒
A collection of grass 花粉粒 through a microscope

Pollen seasons are variable 而且 therefore the production of pollen forecasts is important to enable sufferers to be prepared for the season. The amount of pollen produced 而且 dispersed in any one season depends on a number of weather 而且 climate variables, 无论是赛季前还是赛季中. 例如, 一个寒冷的, dry spring will reduce the amount of grass pollen produced 而且 also cause a late season onset, 在一个温暖的, wet spring will encourage high grass pollen production 而且 an earlier onset. If we have high pollen production coupled with warm weather in-season, then pollen counts can be very high 而且 hay fever sufferers will be very Sneezy 而且 extremely Grumpy. Very wet summers lead to Happy hay fever sufferers since the pollen struggles to get airborne.

Current research is looking at ways of producing more detailed forecasts 而且 real-time pollen monitoring:

详细预测:直到最近, grass pollen types (family or species) could not be separated from one another during pollen monitoring using microscopy because they are so morphologically similar. 然而, new DNA techniques are able to analyse the pollen in the air 而且 determine when specific grass types are in season. Work is also ongoing to produce models for highly detailed pollen forecasts, something which is not currently available 英国. This is all very useful because the type of grass to which individual sufferers are affected can vary substantially. Forecasting according to grass type allows sufferers to get to know which ones they are affected by. Similar work is also being conducted for other pollen types, such as oak 而且 for a fungal spore allergen called Alternaria.

Real-time pollen monitoring means 花粉粒 are detected 而且 counted by a machine connected to the internet 而且 the data sent immediately out to the public. There are now several laser detection machines that are being trialled by scientists at the 世界杯压球APP.

花粉植株

Hay fever 而且 asthma sufferers can follow the pollen forecast, 也被称为花粉计数, to find out which pollen types are in season or coming along soon.

All of the UK’s pollen forecasts come from the 世界杯压球APP, 与英国气象局合作, 而且 are produced by experts in the School of Science 而且 Environment. More information on specific allergens can be found on our 花粉预报页面

贝弗莉博士Adams-Groom 工作 The National Pollen 而且 Aerobiology 研究 Unit in the 科学与环境学院 to monitor 而且 provide the 花粉预报 英国. If you are interested in the science behind the pollen forecast you may be interested in our 科学学位. We also offer tours of our Pollen Labs as part of our 开放的日子.

All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 而且 do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the 世界杯压球APP or any of its partners.